National Sleep Foundation

Chapter 1: Normal Sleep

Sleep Disorder Classifications

There are many distinct sleep disorders, but most are characterized by one of the following symptoms: “excessive daytime sleepiness, difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or abnormal movements, behaviors, and sensations occurring during sleep.”1

There are currently three systems used to classify sleep disorders:

 ICSD-3 is published in association with the European Sleep Research Society, the Japanese Society of Sleep Research, and the Latin American Sleep Society. It distinguishes six subcategories of sleep disorders:

  1. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (commonly known as the DSM-V), published by the American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 2013.2 

    This system lists 10 “sleep-wake disorders,” conditions (or groups of conditions) that are manifested by disturbed sleep that cause both distressed and impaired functioning during the daytime:

    1. Insomnia disorder

    2. Hypersomnolence disorder

    3. Narcolepsy

    4. Breathing-related sleep disorders, including:

    • Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea

    • Central sleep apnea

    • Sleep-related hypoventilation

    1. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including:

    • Advanced sleep phase syndrome

    • Irregular sleep-wake type

    • Non-24-hour sleep-wake type

    1. Non-REM (NREM) sleep arousal disorders

    2. Nightmare disorder

    3. REM sleep behavior disorder

    4. Restless legs syndrome

    5. Substance- or medication-induced sleep disorder.

  2. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition (ICSD-3), published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Chicago, 2014.3 

    ICSD-3 is published in association with the European Sleep Research Society, the Japanese Society of Sleep Research, and the Latin American Sleep Society. It distinguishes six subcategories of sleep disorders:

    1. Insomnia

    2. Sleep Related Breathing Disorders

    3. Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence

    4. Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders

    5. Parasomnias

    6. Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

  3. The International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10), published by the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1994.4 

    The ICD-10 system sets aside two areas for sleep disorders: organic (ICD-10 code: G47) and nonorganic (ICD-10 code: F51), but it only includes a few actual sleep disorder diagnoses.

    The United States still uses a precursor to the ICD-10, the ICD-9-CM (CM stands for “clinical modifications”) — although the country will change over to the ICD-10 system in October 2015. ICD-9 recently incorporated most sleep disorder diagnoses listed in ICSD-2.

References

  1. Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research, Colten HR and Altevogt BM (ed.), Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem, Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2006.
  2. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. See also APA, Sleep-Wake Disorders Fact Sheet, Washington, DC, APA, 2013. On-line at: http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Sleep-wake%20Disorders%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf
  3. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition: Diagnostic and Coding Manual, Westchester, Ill: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014.
  4. World Health Organization (WHO), International Classification of Diseases. 10th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1994.