National Sleep Foundation

Chapter 7: Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Etiology and Risk Factor for Sleep-Related Bruxism (SB)

Sleep-Related Bruxism (SB) can be primary, or secondary to another medical condition or the use of certain recreational drugs (such as cocaine) or medications (such as lithium).73

Primary SB has a familial component; 30% to 50% of patients have at least 1 family member with a history of SB.74 A twin study, however, did not find any genetic correlation with SB.75 Sleep apnea is found twice as often in those with SB than in the normal population.76

While SB has been often been associated with anxiety and hyperactivity, evidence is lacking that it is an anxiety-related condition.77

References

73 Bader G, Lavigne GJ. Sleep bruxism: overview of an oromandibular sleep movement disorder. Sleep Med Rev. 2000. 4:27-43.
74 Lavigne GJ, Kato T, Kolta A, Sessle BJ. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sleep bruxism. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003;14:30-46
75 Bader G, Lavigne GJ. Sleep bruxism: overview of an oromandibular sleep movement disorder. Sleep Med Rev. 2000. 4:27-43.
76 Ohayon MM, Li KK, Guilleminault C. Risk factors for sleep bruxism in the general population. Chest. 2001;119:53-61.
77 Lavigne GJ, Kato T, Kolta A, Sessle BJ. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sleep bruxism. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003;14:30-46