National Sleep Foundation

Chapter 3: Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

Risk Factors

Predisposing factors for CSAS include chronic heart failure, stroke, and other neurological illnesses. Among patients who have chronic heart failure, the risk of CSAS is greatest among men over age 60 who have atrial fibrillation and hypocapnia (awake PaCO2 ≤38 mm Hg).1

The main predisposing factors for Cheyne-Stokes respiration are chronic heart failure and stroke.2

Chronic use (i.e., of more than two months) of long-acting opioids (such as methadone), or sustained-release opioid preparations (with morphine or hydrocodone) can lead to CSAS.3

References

  1. Farnery R, Walker J, Cloward T, Rhondeau S. Sleep-disordered breathing associated with long-term opioid therapy. Chest. 2003;123:632-639.
  2. Sin D, Fitzgerald F, Parker J, Newton G, Floras J, Bradley T. Risk Factors of central and obstructive sleep apnea in 450 men and women with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160:1101-1106.
  3. Farnery R, Walker J, Cloward T, Rhondeau S. Sleep-disordered breathing associated with long-term opioid therapy. Chest. 2003;123:632-639.