National Sleep Foundation

Chapter 3: Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

Consequences

OSAS can cause Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) and negatively affects daytime functioning, resulting in increased irritability, decreased cognitive function, mood and memory problems, and reduced quality of life.1

OSAS is also associated with higher rates of:

  • Hypertension2
  • Cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction,3 and congestive heart failure4
  • Diabetes and metabolic syndrome5
  • Strokes6
  • Atrial fibrillation7
  • Car crashes8
  • All cause mortality.9

OSAS in children may be associated with poor growth, a failure to thrive, developmental delays, and cognitive/behavioral complications.10 11

 

References

  1. Mayo Clinic, Sleep Apnea – Causes, Rochester, MN: Mayo Clinic, July 24, 2012. Available online at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sleep-apnea/basics/causes/con-20020286
  2. Shamsuzzaman AS, Gersh BJ, Somers VK. Obstructive sleep apnea: implications for cardiac and vascular disease. JAMA. 2003;290:1906-1914.
  3. Mooe T, Franklin KA, Wiklund U, Rabben T, Holmstrom K. Sleep-disordered breathing and myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. Chest. 2000;117:1597-1602
  4. Kaneko Y, Floras JS, Usai K, et al. Cardiovascular effects of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. NEJM. 2003;348:1233-1241.
  5. Punjabi NM, Sorkin JD, Katzel LI, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing and insulin resistance in middle-aged and overweight men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:677-682.
  6. Kaneko Y, Floras JS, Usai K, et al. Cardiovascular effects of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. NEJM. 2003;348:1233-1241.
  7. Holmqvist F, Guan N, Zhu Z, et al., ORBIT-AF Investigators. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea and continuous positive airway pressure therapy on outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation-Results from the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF). Am Heart J. 2015;169:647-654.
  8. Tregear S, PhD; James Reston J, Schoelles K, Phillips B, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Reduces Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash among Drivers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea; Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sleep 2010; 33: 1373-1380).
  9. Jennum P, Tønnesen P, Ibsen R, Kjellberg J. All-cause mortality from obstructive sleep apnea in male and female patients with and without continuous positive airway pressure treatment: a registry study with 10 years of follow-up. Nat Sci Sleep. 2015;7:43-50.
  10. Marcus CL. Pathophysiology of childhood obstructive sleep apnea: current concepts. Resp Physiol. 2000;119:143-154.
  11. Redline S, Tishler PV, Schluchter M, Aylor J, Clark K, Graham G. Risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in children. Associations with obesity, race, and respiratory problems. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159:1527-1532.