National Sleep Foundation

Chapter 6: Parasomnias

Etiology/Risk Factors

What are the etiology and the risk factors of arousal disorders?

Arousal disorders can be precipitated by sleep deprivation (which causes increased and deeper SWS), by certain medical and psychiatric illnesses (e.g., PTSD), emotional stress, and by specific medications (e.g., alcohol, sedative hypnotics, neuroleptics, stimulants).1


  1. Mahowald MW, Bornemann MA. NREM Sleep-Arousal Parasomnias. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2005:889-896.